Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Comprehensive Case Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Far reaching Case Analysis - Research Paper Example Consequently they need to instruct, coordinate and even hold a quickly changing and assorted working populace. On the off chance that I were goldstone, I would have additionally taken a similar move thinking about the expanded instances of passings from HIV/AIDS representatives (Nkomo, Fottler, and MacAfee, 2008). In any case, I would come into an accord with the groups of the workers to guarantee that we share the expenses. This case has promoted my speculation on HR the executives. It has caused me to comprehend that there are moral contemplations engaged with business choices and it is upon the human asset office to figure out what the organization is competent to offer. This is thinking about the company’s accessible assets and its objectives and destinations. As a medicinal services chief, this case has caused me to understand the significance of a solid workforce in an association. It is significant for an association to put resources into the soundness of its laborers to guarantee that they boost on their potential accordingly expanding on their efficiency. Also, a sound workforce guarantees that an association cuts on costs and accomplishes its objectives and targets (Burke and Cooper,

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Definition and Examples of Aphaeresis in English

Definition and Examples of Aphaeresis in English Aphaeresis is aâ rhetorical and phonological term for the oversight of at least one sounds or syllables from the earliest starting point of a word. Additionally spelled apheresis. Descriptive word: aphetic. Likewise called syllabic misfortune or starting vowel misfortune. Normal instances of aphaeresis incorporate round (from around), exceptionally (from particularly), and spy (from espy). Note that the erased starting sound is generally a vowel. EtymologyFrom the Greek, removing Models and Observations Kids figuring out how to talk initially will in general hold just the last syllable of words (- nette for marionnette, - go for orange), at that point two syllables (- anna for nanna, - octor for specialist). Free articulation (xactly for precisely) has in this way something whimsical about it. In any case, in tention! (for Attention!) economy of exertion and productivity come into play.Like apocope, aphaeresis most regularly includes the leeway utilization of an articulation as opposed to an artistic device.(Bernard Dupriez, A Dictionary of Literary Devices, trans. by Albert W. Halsall. Univ. of Toronto Press, 1991)New Words From OldAphaeresis has given us various new words, such as drawing-room (from pulling back room), battle (from guard; whence bumper), sport (from disport), and stain (from distain). A number are aphetic in the tight sense: saucy (from now outdated apert, returning at last to Latin appertus open), ring (from offer), patch (from alter), quarrel (from affray), the action word employ (from apply), the descriptor live (from alive), spy (from espy), and tend (from both join in and mean). In the above cases, huge semantic improvement followed the aphaeresis, with the goal that one doesn't ordinarily associate in ones psyche the abbreviated and the first longer forms.(The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories, 1991) Aphaeresis in Contemporary SpeechContrary to the replacement and expansion of syllables, syllabic misfortune, known as aphaeresis, isn't at all extraordinary. Specifically, the limitations under which it works are actually the ones anticipated by the discourse blunder information. The oversights happen in word-starting positions and influence unstressed syllables containing diminished vowels. Frequently, the syllable just comprises of a vowel. . . .Undoubtedly, aphaeresis happens on a wide scale in the communicated in language of today (and yesterday). . . . Run of the mill models incorporate about in How session that? also, except if in I aint going less you do. . . . Loosened up conditions are for the most part that is required for aphaeresis to occur.(Thomas Berg, Linguistic Structure and Change: An Explanation From Language Processing. Oxford University Press, 1998)The Lighter Side of AphaeresisI cannot slaughter the possum [for opossum], cause [for because] it may be honest. I c annot release the possum, since it may be liable. Cant make a decent soup, cannot do a handstand in a pool. Cant spell the word lieutenant. There are a ton of cants throughout my life right now.(Amy Poehler as Lesley Knope in The Possum. Parks and Recreation, 2010) Elocution: a-FER-eh-ses

Monday, July 27, 2020

Whats going on at SIPA this week COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Whats going on at SIPA this week COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Just like before, this is by no means an exhaustive list. Just an example of one event per day that interests me on our campus! Thursday Title: Starting and Running Your Own Business Sponsored by: Urban and Social Policy Concentration and Management Specialization What is it? In this dynamic new workshop a successful entrepreneur shows what it takes to plan, establish and run your own business.   Key areas of discussion include: Deciding what business to start; Moving from an idea to launch; Finding seed money; Structuring your business; Finding and keeping customers About the Presenter: Caroline Ceniza-Levine is co-founder of SixFigureStart career coaching; co-founder of FBC Films independent film production; founding member of Comic Diversity stand-up comedy; and partner of Redseeds Consulting executive search. Friday Title: SIPA Gala!!!! Sponsored by: SIPA Student Association What is it?: Basically prom for grad school! Dancing, drinks, hors d’ouevres and fancy dress. Held at Capitale NY. Saturday Title: Workshop on Sustainable Development Sponsored by:   The Sustainable Development Doctoral Society (SDDS) What is it? The workshop is hosting graduate students from around the world who will present their cutting edge research on sustainability across a range of topics such as: water conservation, urban planning, agriculture, biodiversity, disasters, health, climate change, forests and energy. Click here for more details. Sunday Title: Spring Into Yoga Sponsored by: Columbia Art of Living What: Guided yoga session led by a professional Yoga instructor. Breath, stretch, and sweat. Open to all levels. Monday Title: Gender, Rio+20, and the Post-2015 Development Agenda Sponsored by: Economic and Political Development concentration, Gender Policy Working Group and SIPA Environmental Coalition. What is it?: Talk with Eleanor Blomstrom of Women’s Environment and Development Organization. About the Speaker: Eleanor worked on climate change projects ranging from green roofs to waste management to adaptation with the Earth Institute, the Clinton Foundation and the World Bank. She has community development experience in the areas of agriculture and women?s empowerment with organizations in Nicaragua and Nigeria. Her current work is informed by a professional background in bilingual elementary education with a focus on race and gender equity in public schools. Eleanor holds a Master of International Affairs in Urban and Environmental Policy from Columbia University?s School of International and Public Affairs and a Bachelor?s degree in Environmental Sciences. Tuesday Title: Eurasian Pipelines: Roads to Peace, Development and Interdependencies? Sponsored by: The Harriman Institute for Eastern European Studies What is it?: A talk as a part of the 7th Annual   Harriman Institute Colloqium Geo-Eco Politics, Eurasian Energy and (elusive) Transparency. About the Speakers: Confirmed speakers for the event include Jalil Jumriany, Director General, Ministry of Mines, Afghanistan; Andrey Konoplyanik, Adviser, Gazprom Export; Steve LeVine, author of Oil and Glory; Ekpen Omonbude, Commonwealth Secretariat and author of Cross-border Oil and Gas Pipelines and the Role of the Transit Country; David Onoprishvili, Chairman, Budget and Finance Committee, Parliament, Georgia Wednesday Title: A Strategy for Sustainable Development in the United States Sponsored by: The Earth Institute What is it?: Annual University-wide talk by sustainability expert and SIPA Professor, Jeffrey Sachs About the the Speaker:  Jeffrey D. Sachs is the Director of the Columbia University Earth Institute; Quetelet Professor of Sustainable Development; Professor of Health Policy and Management, Columbia University and Special Adviser to the United Nations Secretary-General Ban-ki Moon on the Millennium Development Goals. Whats going on at SIPA this week COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Monday, January 23, 2012 through Saturday, March 10, 2012 Ongoing Exhibit: Behind the Porous Curtain: Photography by Anatoly Pronin International Affairs Building, 12th Floor Harriman Atrium Harriman Institute Photography Exhibit with Anatoly Pronin. Monday, January 30, 2012 Saddam Husseins Bath Party: Inside an Authoritarian Regime Middle East Institute Lecture with Joseph Sassoon, moderated by Timothy Mitchell. Tuesday, January 31, 2012 UN Studies Program Panel on, The Security Council and its Human Rights Agenda: Children and Armed Conflict; New Tools to Fight Impunity UN Studies Program Round-table discussion moderated by Professor Elisabeth Lindenmayer, Director of the UN Studies Program; featuring: Radhika Coomaraswamy, UN Under-Secretary-General, Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict; Ambassador Dr. Peter Wittig, Permanent Representative of Germany to the United Nations; Grace Akallo, former child soldier from Uganda, Founder and Executive Director of United Africans for Women and Children Rights (UAWCR); and Jo Becker, Advocacy Director, Childrens Rights Division, Human Rights Watch. A reception will follow. Book Discussion with Simon Gikandi: Slavery and the Culture of Taste Institute for African Studies Panel to discuss Simon Gikandis new book Slavery and the Culture of Taste, with Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, University of Michigan; Saidiya Hartman, Columbia University; Madeleine Dobie, Columbia Univeristy; and moderated by Mamadou Diouf, Columbia University. Wednesday, February 1, 2012 2012 ILAS Travel Grants Information Session Institute of Latin American Studies Information Session: Come learn about the Institute of Latin American Studies Research and Internship Travel Grants for 2012. Thursday, February 2, 2012 Policing Democracy: Overcoming Obstacles to Citizen Security in Latin America Institute of Latin American Studies Lecture and part of the University Seminar on Latin America Series presented by Mark Ungar,  Professor of Political Science, Brooklyn College and the Criminal Justice Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY. Friday, February 3, 2012 Medicine and Magic at the Rooftop of the World Harriman Institute Symposium with Paolo Ognibene, University of Bologna; Yuri Stoyanov, SOAS, London; and Paolo Delaini, University of Bologna. Followed by film screening of Legami e riti, Love and Rituality, a short documentary by Paolo Delaini. Mormonism and American Politics Conference Center for the Study of Democracy, Toleration and Religion Day one of a two-day conference on Mormonism. Speakers include Randall Balmer, Columbia; Richard Bushman, Claremont Graduate University; Claudia Bushman, Claremont Graduate University; Joanna Brooks; Matthew Bowman; David Campbell, Notre Dame; Sarah Barringer Gordon, Penn Law; Jan Shipps, The Polis Center; and others. Saturday, February 4, 2012 Mormonism and American Politics Conference Center for the Study of Democracy, Toleration and Religion Day two of a two-day conference on Mormonism. Speakers include Randall Balmer, Columbia; Richard Bushman, Claremont Graduate University; Claudia Bushman, Claremont Graduate University; Joanna Brooks; Matthew Bowman; David Campbell, Notre Dame; Sarah Barringer Gordon, Penn Law; Jan Shipps, The Polis Center; and others.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay on The Exploitation and Objectification of Women in...

Women have consistently been perceived as second-class citizens. Even now, in times when a social conscience is present in most individuals, in an era where an atmosphere of gender equality supposedly exists, it is blatantly apparent that the objectification and marginalization of women is still a major social issue. In reality, progression in terms of reducing female exploitation has been stagnant at best. Not only is the degradation of women a major problem that to date has not been eradicated, but it is actually being endorsed by some music celebrities. There are a growing number of people who purchase rap albums that support the fallacy that women are mere objects and should be treated as such. As the popularity of rap continues to†¦show more content†¦(Weisstuch). The underlying message is that women live exclusively for the sexual gratification of men based on male power, privilege and preference. These images serve as a grim reminder that women are being exploited as sexual objects through rap videos. Therefore, the objectification of women through the means of rap music is a major influence in the exploitation of women. In addition to the actualization of women, rap also promotes extreme violence and abuse towards women. Besides the ?mild? abuse the vast majority of rappers perpetually depict, some rappers display a loathing so deep it can only be classified as misogyny. In the song 97 Bonnie and Clyde,? by Eminem, he says ?There goes mama, splashing in the water. No more fighting with dad, no more restraining order. Blow her kisses bye-bye, tell mommy you love her? (Bonnie). In a sinister fashion, the song goes on to describe how he murdered and disposed of his ex-wife with the assistance of his three-year-old daughter. Here the violence towards women crosses generations and involves the traumatic use and abuse of a three-year old girl. It promotes that violence, even toward our most vulnerable, is acceptable if they are female. Undeniably, t he hip-hop culture?s perverse attitude towards the treatment of women has gradually been accepted by society. It seems society has been desensitized to the violence of rap byShow MoreRelatedMisogyny Hip Hop W Sources Essay1571 Words   |  7 Pagesin Hip Hop culture refers to lyrics, videos, or other aspects of hip hop culture that support, glorify, justify or normalize the objectification, exploitation or victimization of women. Misogyny in hip hop music instills and perpetuates negative stereotypes about women. It can range from innuendos to stereotypical characterizations and defamations. Overt misogyny in rap and hip hop music emerged in the late 1980’s, and has since then been a feature of the music of numerous hip hop artists. Read MoreThe Effects Of Rap Songs Sung By Men Speak Of Women1415 Words   |  6 PagesOut of twenty rap songs previously analyzed, the word â€Å"bitch† was said thirty-eight times. Irrespective of those twenty, a striking majority of rap songs sung by men speak of women in an unfavorable way, often reducing them to sex objects. Rap has had a dramatic rise in popularity in recent years, due in large part to the fact that sex sells. The unintended consequence is that female subjects featured in this kind of music are often the ones that suffer the most. Most of the rappers with the greatestRead More Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music Videos Essay1725 Words   |  7 Pages Misogyny and degradation of women is present in almost every genre of music, yet the one genre that completely revolves around demeaning women is rap. Over the years rap and rap music videos have continually become more sexual and degrading towards women. Rap has been criticized numerous times for this rea son, and that is because rap is one of the most popular genres of music for the younger generations. It is more than a genre of music, it is a complete industry filled with clothing and other merchandiseRead MoreHip Hop : The Commodification Of African American Women1717 Words   |  7 PagesHip-Hop Music: The Commodification of African-American Women Since its emergence in the 1980s, hip-hop has taken the world by storm; it has impacted and revolutionized the way people behave, dress, and think. Hip-hop music enables people to connect in a way they would never be able to with any other genre of music. Although, hip-hop has swayed different generations over the years, its influence has not always been positive. In the past, hip-hop focused more on current events in society, personalRead MoreSociology: Sexual Objectification of Women in Music Videos Today915 Words   |  4 PagesThis study works to examine the use of sexual objectification of women in music videos today. The primary purpose was to examine the differences between genres, specifically hip-hop and country. I tested the following; Women are more likely to be sexualized in hip-hop music videos than in country music videos. Literature Review Since the explosion of music videos in 1981, a large portion of their popularity has been due to the objectification of women and their sexuality. â€Å"Early content analysesRead MoreMisogyny Of Hip Hop : The Solution1564 Words   |  7 Pagesthe constant urge for new artists, lyrics, and rap styles, it seems as though Hip Hop is the holy grail of music. One of the main problems with Hip Hop is the misogyny of women. Adams and Fuller (2006) define misogyny as the â€Å"hatred or disdain of women† and â€Å"an ideology that reduces women to objects for men’s ownership, use, or abuse† (p. 939). Popular American hip-hop and rap artists, such as Eminem, Ludacris and Ja Rule, have increasingly depicted women as objects of violence or male domination byRead MoreThe Effects Of Music On Our Country Today1661 Words   |  7 Pagesfound that when individuals that viewed the sexually degrading material who were asked to comment on an ‘acquaintance rape’ sc enario, were more likely to make excuses for the perpetrator (Burgess Burpo) So if the consumption of these depictions of women have such an adverse effect on its viewers, then why do we continue to watch? Is the music video really responsible for these effects, or is the type of audience that watches these videos already have a predisposition of violent behavior? There areRead MoreWomens Music Essay2123 Words   |  9 Pagesvulgar. Perhaps the perversion of sexuality and the objectification of women in the media are made most clear in a format of a few brief minutes of ‘scenery centered on a musical narrative. I speak of course of modern music videos. While there is not as much material available for analysis in music videos as there is in other media forms (due to the fact that music videos are a relatively new media format), examples of increasing objectification of female bodies are everywhere. In order to best illustrateRead MoreIs All Rap Music Promoting And Glorifying Crime And Degrading1351 Words   |  6 Pages Is all rap music promoting and glorifying crime and degrading women? This is a question that is asked often and the general consensus is that, yes, it does. Is there any evidence however to back up these claims and are the rappers intending their music to be seen in a negative aggressive way. I don’t necessarily think that rap music does anything but give the musician an outlet for their talent and use topics like women and crime in their songs for commercialization and to create an image that rappersRead MoreThe Censorship Of The Hip Hop Culture887 Words   |  4 Pages The Oppressive Language Leading to the Degradation of Woman via The Hip Hop Culture Today There’s a powerful source brainwashing young minority women today, specifically the language expressed in Rap lyrics which is often embraced by the Hip Hop Culture recently. These young gems are being conditioned to value their worth centered around hollow, vain, and degrading measures. The lead directors of these measures are strong, empowered, talented men who come across as if they

Friday, May 8, 2020

Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep - 978 Words

Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? *insert bomb-ass intro* Philip K. Dick’s revolutionary perception of the progression of artificial intelligence can be explored through the vocabulary introduced in Masahiro Mori’s The Uncanny Valley. Dick begins his novel by introducing readers to Rick Deckard- a bounty hunter in post- apocalyptic San Francisco following World War Terminus. Employed by the San Francisco Police Department, Deckard’s occupation as a bounty hunter requires him to hunt escaped androids from the off-world colonies. Once located, Deckard is required to â€Å"retire† these androids in order to collect his compensation: â€Å"Evidently the humanoid robot constituted a solitary predator. Rick liked to think of them that way; it made his†¦show more content†¦This lack of affinity constitutes the basis of the post-apocalyptic society’s ideological values towards the progression of artificial intelligence given the technology’s progression towards a more humanistic appearance but inherent lack of humanistic qualities. Dick’s perception of this trend in the advancement of artificial intelligence serves as a foresight into that of our own society- the notion of whic h Mori explores in his discussion of the â€Å"uncanny valley†. As Deckard progresses through his list, â€Å"retiring† his assigned androids, he finds himself taken back by one in particular- Luba Luft, an opera singer. Upon their first encounter at the old opera house, Deckard is caught off guard by the extent of Luft’s musical talents: â€Å"On the stage Luba Luft sang, and he found himself surprised at the quality of her voice; it rated with that of the best, even that of notables in his collection of historic tapes† (99). Notably affected by this observation, Deckard reflects on her talents after his fellow bounty hunter, Phil Resch, â€Å"retires† her: â€Å"She was really a superb singer, he said to himself as he hung up the receiver, his call completed. I don’t get it; how can a talent like that be a liability to our society? But it wasn’t the talent, he told himself; it was she herself† (137). The notion of a non-human entity exhibiting such exquisite talent servesShow MoreRelatedDo Androi ds Dream Of Electric Sheep1211 Words   |  5 PagesDick’s 1968 novel, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, examines the idea of empathy—forcing characters and readers alike to question just how much empathy one must have to be considered human. The main hero, Rick Deckard, feels as if androids and electric animals are incapable of feeling empathy toward humans or other machines—a characteristic that determines androids to be nonhuman. Since Deckard classifies androids as being nonliving, he believes it is acceptable to â€Å"retire† androids. While Rick DeckardRead MoreDo Androids Dream of Electric Sheep1472 Words   |  6 Pagesto mars, technology has advanced very much and they have androids that serve as their personal slaves. †¢ The main character is Rick Deckard, he is a bounty hunter that works for the police and hunts down escaped androids to retire them (what basically means kill them). †¢ In this book Rick Deckard has to hunt down 5 escaped nexus-6 androids, these are a new kind of androids that are much more advanced then any other type of androids. They look exactly the same as humans and are equally smartRead MoreDo Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep?1116 Words   |  5 Pages Sherryl Vint’s essay â€Å"Speciesism and Species Being in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?† discusses the relationship between androids in Philip K. Dick’s novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and animals in reality. In the novel, humanity has had to flee to Mars in order to escape the dust that is plaguing the Earth. On Mars, androids are used as a readily available labor source. Vint compares the relationship of humans and androids in the novel to that of humans and animals in the real worldRead More`` Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep 1515 Words   |  7 PagesPhillip Dick’s â€Å"Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep’’ is a science fiction novel describing humanity’s struggle for survival in a post-apocalyptic world after a nuclear war has irradiated the Earth, the world is pretty much a wasteland, forcing humans to create a separate colony on Mars. The novel explores the importance of empathy in an increasingly technological world where humans struggle for relevance. In the spirit of Phillip K. Dick’s questioning of reality and identity, it only makes senseRead MoreDo Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep?1829 Words   |  8 Pagessocial setting. Philip K. Dick’s novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? as well as the movie inspired by the book, Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner, explores the human-like nature of rogue Nexus-6 androids and the way they attempt to assimilate into society as well as their abilities that distinguish them from humans. Although the prime method of distinguishing androids from humans is detecting their lack of empathy, both the novel and film demonstrat e that androids possess an equal, sometimes greaterRead MoreDo Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep?1798 Words   |  8 Pagescannot be determined The novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? was published in 1968 by Philip K. Dick. Set in post-apocalyptic Earth, the novel follows the story of Rick Deckard, a bounty hunter who is faced with the task of ‘retiring’ six renegade androids. Similarly, Inception by Christopher Nolan follows a man named Cobb and his ability to access one’s dreams to steal or plant ideas in their subconscious. Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Christopher Nolan’s InceptionRead More Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Essay1664 Words   |  7 PagesDo Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Brave New World take place in dystopian futures. Technological advancements have been beneficial to society, but at the cost of the citizens’ humanity. In Do Androids Dream of electric Sheep?, Rick Deckard is a bounty hunter who kills Androids who have escaped from other world colonies. The Rosen Corporation creates the androids to mimic humans to a point where it is hard to distinguish between the two. In Brave New World, the World State is responsible forRead MoreReview Of Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep 1985 Words   |  8 Pagescase, the android. The androids presented in the book serve as a means of redefining what it means to be human. Humans have now entered this new age of technology and with it, have attained the ability to push pre-existing mental and physical boundaries. Abstract: The boundaries of what it means to be human is constantly shifting. As we enter the Posthuman age, the altered posthuman is becoming the new human. In Phillip K Dick’s novel, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? androids serve andRead MoreDo Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Essay1093 Words   |  5 PagesIn Philip K. Dicks world of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep, life has become a precious commodity. But, the definition of what life entails has become very vague. A new hierarchal order has been set up to rank a particular lifes value. Humans still reign supreme, at least in theory, but the exaltation and protection they place on an animals existence in this futuristic society closely shadows, and even trumps, that of another human being. Far beneath animals, is a close race between chickenheadsÂâ€"humansRead More Comparison of The Matrix and Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?1959 Words   |  8 PagesComparison of The Matrix and Do Androids Dream of Elect ric Sheep? Andy and Larry Wachowskis movie, The Matrix parallels many of the characters and themes that are explored in Philip K. Dicks novel, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. There are five main characters or groups of people that are explored in Dicks novel. First, Morpheus, the leader of the unplugged individuals, emulates the role that the Rosen Association plays. Next, Cypher, an underhanded man, who is comparable to Rachel

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Collegial And Formal Type Of Leadership Concerning Head Teachers Free Essays

This assignment consists of two parts. In the first portion, the theoretical accounts of collegial and formal type of leading are considered and compared to the caput instructor ‘s function to which the writer is familiar within the educational system of Cyprus. The caput instructor ‘s function will be analysed in both leading manners. We will write a custom essay sample on Collegial And Formal Type Of Leadership Concerning Head Teachers or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the 2nd portion, the writer concentrates on the premises made about the school organisation and its values with the collegial and formal types of leading. The assignment ends with a decision based on the writer ‘s apprehension of leading that emerges from a consideration of both theory and pattern in relation to these two theoretical accounts. Part 1 Harmonizing to Pashiardis ( 1995 ) the educational system in Cyprus has a bureaucratic construction and school principals are invariably seeking to fulfill the administrative officials instead than the demands of pupils and parents. Everything must be done in a pre-determined mode, which barely leaves any infinite for mistakes or gives leeway for divergence from the mainstream. This is the chief ground why the formal theoretical account of leading is being chosen. Most of the elements of direction tantrum into the bureaucratic construction of the Cypriot educational system. On the other manus, within the collegial theoretical account of leading the regulating organic structure of each school is free to put extra purposes and aims that would non merely profit the school community but besides the quality of the instruction offered. Collegial Model of Management Harmonizing to Bush ( 1995 ) and his collegial theoretical account, the purposes emerge from a participative procedure whereby staff reach an understanding based on common values. The leader in a collegial theoretical account believes that school staff should ever be a squad in order to be effectual and that everyone should be involved in all activities refering the school patterns. In this instance, all instructors should hold a common vision, set a mission and be cognizant of their function to guarantee the success of the academic endeavor. The elements of Collegial Model are the procedures by which ends are determined by the nature of determination procedure and the leading manner. The collegial theoretical account is based on understanding ends among the members of an organisation and nowadayss sidelong constructions and all members have the right to take part in the determination procedure. As Kaily P. ( 2010 ) wrote A «specific jobs can be addressed by different commissions which are appointed at the beginning of the school twelvemonth. These commissions consist of instructors harmonizing to their abilities and expertness. They undertake to turn to and work out jobs that arise during the school twelvemonth such as pupil subject by explicating a codification of behavior, force at school- bar and intervention, development activities for motive in acquisition, larning troubles and workaroundsA » ( Kaily P. E849 Web Activity 1, 2 November 2010 ) . Furthermore, Palli C. ( 2010 ) A «there is a shared leading and a c orporate sense of duty among the staff at her school. At the beginning of the school twelvemonth at that place was a deputation of functions and duties. Besides the instructors had the chance to choose the commissions they wanted to be members harmonizing to their interestsA » ( Palli C. E849 Web Activity 1, 3 November 2010 ) . The most positive facet of the Collegial Model is the fact that ends have already been agreed, ensuing to the possibility for the participant staff to concentrate and to accomplish the ends set. Everybody ‘s aspirations, expertness and capablenesss are taken into consideration and used in a manner that promotes the public assistance of the school unit. As Bennett ( 1995 ) has argued, cognition is an of import power resource. Sharing cognition in a collaborative manner requires a high grade of common trust and consensus. Formal Model of Management Looking into Bush ( 1995 ) the formal theoretical accounts of direction aver that aims are set at the institutional degree. Goals are determined by senior staff and the support of other instructors is taken for granted. Therefore, the activities of schools are evaluated in the visible radiation of these official intents. Furthermore, the organisational construction is regarded as nonsubjective world. Persons hold defined places in the organisation and working relationships are assumed to be strongly influenced by these official places. Formal theoretical accounts treat constructions as hierarchal with decision-making as a ‘top-down ‘ procedure. In contrast to collegiality, the features ofA the formal direction modelsA harmonizing to Bush ( 2003 ) A «heads haveA authorization because of their positionsA and areA accountableA for what they do to their patron they use anyA rationalA manner to accomplish goalsaˆÂ ¦A »A ( Bush, 2003, p.126 ) fits a batch to the Cypriot Educational System. Not merely do public schools but besides private 1s have debt-reduction direction programmes and everything must be centralized and economic systems of graduated table must be made. One is asked to yearly describe in beforehand how many pupils are registered for the undermentioned academic twelvemonth that the figure of instructors is reduced to the lower limit to salvage resources as Webb and Vulliamy ( 1996 ) reference A «in bureaucratism, efficiency, subject, control, reliabilityA is more importantA » ( Webb and Vulliamy, 1989, p.312 ) . Promotion is on the footing of seniorityA ( Bush 2003 ) more like a typical formal bureaucra tic Cypriot school. However, after a long waiting at the age of 40-55 one eventually leaves from the low-paying Cypriot private school and is employed by a ‘highly-benefiting ‘ Cypriot public school. When he/she gets employed in a public school, which will merely happen out merely a few yearss before the school twelvemonth starts, uncovering bureaucratism which is neither efficient nor dependable. Part 2 Harmonizing to Bush and Derek ( 2003 ) leading may be understood as ‘influence ‘ but this impression is impersonal in that it does non explicate or urge what ends or actions should be sought through this procedure. However, A «certain alternate concepts of leading focal point on the demand for leading to be grounded in steadfast personal and professional valuesA » ( Bush and Derek, 2003, p.4 ) . Wasserberg ( 1999 ) besides claims that A «the primary function of any leader is the fusion of people around cardinal valuesA » ( Wasserberg, 1999, p.158 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to Gross ( 1985 ) values are generated externally to the person instead than being internal, personal creative activities. However persons play important function in set uping peculiar values with environments in which they live and work. Bush ( 1998 ; 2003 ) besides links A «leadership to values or aim while direction relates to implementation or proficient issuesA » ( Bush, 1998, 2003, p .324 ) Collegial theoretical account is interpinned by integrative and actuating values. Integrative values are those that serve to pull persons into collectivity and motivation values are those that shape single and corporate perceptual experiences of demands and involvements. The deduction of these values for leading function in the educational system in Cyprus could be justified since caput instructors normally encourage the staff to take portion in any decision-making process. In this certain values are agreed in the schools. Thus the personal sentiments of ( instructors, parents pupils ) are acceptable by others, differences and dissensions are shown in a democratic signifier. In add-on, coaction is promoted by caput instructors. Every instructor, parent, pupil has its personal demands and involvements. Head instructors try to assist all members in personal and professional troubles and offer ways in order for everyone to hold a function in the school. Furthermore, caput instructors pr omote trust and assurance among all members, make constructive remarks and promote staff to take part in educational seminars and other educational plans. The formal leading theoretical account combines largely regulative and directing values which seek to command the behavior of persons and groups. The equal chances and race dealingss statute law is enacted in many developed states. Such values are an of import portion of the policy procedure both nationally and within organisations. Whether we accept or reject person else ‘s value system is non the same as denying that it is a value which shapes their actions. This is one of the three different sorts of Gross ‘s ( 1985 ) classified values which influence different aspects of the school.A Although the ministry of Education and Culture directs schools on how to run, each school may develop its ain rules and values harmonizing to its peculiar demands and purposes. Under the counsel of the Head Teacher certain values have been defined for my school ‘s civilization like: Equal chances for all kids as an look of cardinal human rights, the development of pupils ‘ soc ietal accomplishments, democratic duologue in instance of struggles among the kids, the multi-dimensional betterment of kids ‘s personality, the importance of interaction with the external environment ( parents ) , and the pattern of multiple intelligences. All the above societal values are articulated within the school serve to pull persons into a formality. The manner that my school is managed promotes coaction and reduces conflict between staff. The caput instructor supports the attempts of his instructors and motivates them to portion and bring forth the school ‘s values. He helps instructors cope with the troubles encountered and promotes respect, democracy, honestness and trust. He encourages instructors to take portion in educational seminars and provides equal chances for engagement in determination doing seeking to follow democratic values. As Gross ( 1985 ) references â€Å" Persons play a important function in set uping peculiar values within the environments in which they live and work. Valuess are manifested in the actions people take, including the things that they say and the linguistic communication they use † ( Gross, 1985, p.47 ) . A Harmonizing to Sergiovanni ( 2000 ) , how we resolve a job relates to the extent to which our determination devising is dominated by the values of our life universe and our syst em universe. As he interprets, system universe should be interdependent with life universe ( the kernel of values and beliefs ) Decision In decision it can be seen that at that place has to be a leading manner which will integrate patterns from both manners of leading and which promote the development of the school through the engagement and engagement of all the staff members. A caput instructor ‘s function is to do the vision and the mission of the school known to his/her staff in order for the instructors with the right cognition and ability to be involved in the determination devising. Bennett, N. ( 1995 ) Pull offing Professional Teachers: in-between direction in primary and secondary schools, London, Paul Chapman. Bush, T. ( 1995 ) , 2nd edn, Theories of Educational Management, London, Paul Chapman. Bush, T. ( 1998 ) The National Professional Qualification for Headship: the key to effectual school leading? , School Leadership and Management, 18 ( 3 ) 321-34. Bush, T. ( 2003 ) , Theories of Educational Management, 3rd edn. London: Sage. Bush, T. And Derek G. , ( 2003 ) , School Leadership: Concepts and Evidence, Full study Spring, 2003 E849 Leading and Managing for Effective Education, Study Guide, ( 2003 ) , The Open University. Gross, F. ( 1985 ) , Ideologies, Goals and Values, Westport, CT, Greenwood Press. Kaily, P. E849 Web Activity 1, 2 November 2010 Palli, C. , E849 Web Activity 1, 3 November 2010 Pashiardis, P. ( 1995 ) , A «Cyprus principals and the catholicities of effectual leadership’A » , International Studies in Educational Administration, Vol. 23 No. 1, pp. 16-26. Sergiovanni 2000, Effective Educational Leadership, O.U. , Sage Wasserberg, M. ( 1999 ) , Making the vision and doing it go on, in Tomlinson, H. , Gunter, H. and Smith, P. ( Eds. ) , Populating Headship: Voices, Valuess and Vision, London, Paul Chapman. Webb, R. and Vulliamy, G. ( 1996 ) , The altering function of the primary caput instructor, Educational Management and Administration, 24 ( 3 ) , 301-15. How to cite Collegial And Formal Type Of Leadership Concerning Head Teachers, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The importance of strategic leadership in the global business environment

Introduction The kind of leadership approaches used by management in an organization is crucial in determining whether the set vision, goals and objectives will be attained.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The importance of strategic leadership in the global business environment specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Strategic leadership A strategy refers to an action plan. The plan is communicated to staff and they are motivated in attaining results. There are four approaches that are used by strategic leaders; these are classical, rational, evolutionary and systematic. Strategic Leadership Management There is a difference between management and leadership. Leadership on the other hand is creative, innovative and proactive. With the changing and highly competitive global business environment it is paramount for the company to practice strategic leadership. There are the internal changes that may involve changes in cor porate policies, financial constraints and strategy and external forces of change which include changes in customer demands, the political environment and technology Corporate Parenting Corporate parenting refers to the level of controls a company has over its subsidiaries and associate companies. There are three levels of corporate parenting. There are three levels of corporate parenting; financial, strategic and intervention. Globalization Globalization has many merits with the consumer being the major beneficiary. The idea of monopolies is defeated as businesses are forced to compete globally. The quality of products a company offers has to be very high. It increases specialization in the companies. Global Strategy and the Current challenges In today’s global business environment, strategic leadership is required. In strategic organizations, the leader expresses a vision for the global organization and motivates the people towards achieving that vision. Decisions have to b e made on which foreign markets to invest in and what products to sell. There are many factors to be considered when getting involved in foreign markets such as the legal environment, the social and cultural environment and the competitive environment. Conclusion Strategic leadership is integral in maintaining a successful and sustainable global strategy. To be inflexible and static would lead to the death of any company competing in the global markets.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Introduction The kind of leadership approaches used by management in an organization are crucial in determining whether the set vision, mission, goals and objectives will be attained. In today’s turbulent global market the kind of leadership that is required is strategic leadership. Strategic  Leadership:  A strategy refers to an action plan. In an organization, the management commun icates to the staff an action plan. The leader motivates them to work hard to achieve results. It is all about setting goals and objectives and achieving them over time (Cole, 1997). The main challenge for the strategic leader is the environment in which the business operates in. There is such uncertainty and risk in today’s business environment. The leaders have to make decisions based on volatile knowledge as it keeps changing daily (Guillot, 2003). Leaders are faced with making tough decisions. To some extent strategic management is an intuitive and philosophical undertaking (Parnell, 2003). The decisions plans have to be feasible and realistic and at the same time the most profitable to the organization. The leader considers the benefits of achieving the strategy and finds the challenges worthwhile (Morebusiness.com Editors, 2007).  There are four approaches that are used by strategic leaders (Whittington, 2002). The first approach is the classical theory where the obje ctive of the leaders is profit making.  Ã‚  Rational thinking is used to attain it. If a business is not profitable it is discarded. The second theory, evolutionary theory is different in that it does not focus on rationality alone. The environment in which the business is operating in is a critical factor. A radical kind of thinking and flexibility is required in complex and dynamic environments. By firms operating strategically in the dynamic environment, they ensure continuity of the organization (Ansoff, 1985). Many scholars have argued classical approach is irrelevant since it does not put into consideration the current dynamic environments (Skaik, 2009). The markets really determine who will stay in business. Very few businesses survive in the dynamic markets. The evolutionary method argues that markets are tough and unpredictable. It assumes the managers may not have the ability to establish long term strategies. Tough competition has to be dealt with by the companies strug gling to survive. Companies will not succeed through rational thinking and calculation alone. In the processual approach the company considers the diverse realities on the ground. In this theory the managers consider the several individuals in the company and the different goals they may have. The goals have to be synchronized towards a common goal. Secondly the managers have to be aggressive since the markets are too messy and confused to be left in control of the company. In the systemic approach the company appreciates the role of the social environment on the company (Cuizon, 2009).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The importance of strategic leadership in the global business environment specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The family, religion and State have a huge impact on strategy. These relationships dictate how the staff members should conduct themselves. The leaders are optimistic they will be efficient an d effective. Strategic Leadership and Management: There is a difference between management and leadership. Management ensures work is done. Managers focus on the daily directing and controlling activities. It is the authority and role given to them by the organization. The managerial skills are a great asset though deficient in the current fast-paced changing environment (Coach4growth Editors, 2010). This is because management is mostly reactive to situations. Reactive leaders worry about the day, they are tactical and operational. They do nothing to offset most of the future risk (CMOE Editors, 2010). They may even resist change instead of adapting to it and seeing the opportunities and competitive advantages therein.  Managers end up doing a lot of fire-fighting and are not proactive. Energy is spent mostly on resolving issues instead of analyzing the local and global environment. A manager has a vision and a goal but that is hardly enough. Leadership is creative, innovative and proactive (Sullivan, 2006). With the changing and highly competitive global business environment, it is paramount for the company to practice strategic leadership. Leaders anticipate troubles and opportunities. They are highly observant and aware of their surroundings and the changes therein. To a leader flexibility means staying open to opportunities as they arise (Mazur, 2010). They observe the emerging trends and patterns and adjust to the changing business climate. The forces of change a company faces are of two types. The first one is an internal change that may involve changes in corporate policies, financial constraints and changes in strategy. External forces of change include changes in customer demands, the political environment and technology. Leaders carry out Swot analysis in a bid to achieve a competitive advantage edge. They actively involve themselves in action-oriented plans. They communicate a strategy to the people and motivate them to achieve it. The leader is d ifferent in that above having vision and goals he is able to â€Å"sell† the vision to the people. He motivates them to buy the vision and aggressively pursue it. The leader is involved in inspiring staff to be self-driven. It may even involve using participative models for leadership such as teamwork. Leaders are more aware of change and guide the organization towards continuous improvement and learning. They are change agents where the managers would be satisfied with maintaining the status quo. There have been many arguments about the differences in leadership and management. In the global environment strategic leadership and management skills are both very important. The strategic leader should also be able to handle day to day tasks and at the same time be forward looking considering change and opportunities for growth. Being a leader with no managerial qualities will not help as one will not be able to operate the vision.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Corporate Parenting: Corporate parenting refers to the level of controls a company has over its subsidiaries and associate companies (Scribd Editors, 2010). There are three levels of corporate parenting. The first level refers to the financial controls that the parent company has over the business subsidiaries. The individual companies may carry out business activities and make decisions but the parent company sets the performance standards, goals and budgets for the subsidiaries. The parent company secondly has strategic control over the business unit. This is achieved by the parent company coming up with the common goal and vision. It ensures there is unity in all the business units towards achieving the common purpose. The third level of control is through intervention. When any issues arise in the business units the parent company intervenes and provides the ultimate control and decisions. Corporate parenting raises pertinent questions. What businesses should a company own? What are the organizational structures, management processes and philosophies that will enable the company to have superior performance compared to their competitors? It is unfortunate that most planning processes aim at developing the company at the business level and not at the global level yet the parenting strategy brings competitive advantage by controlling businesses that would potentially be independent (Campbell,1995). The parent company guides the individual businesses financial spending. It also acts as a central point connecting the subsidiaries to one another. Furthermore the parent company provides competent departmental functions. The parent company makes wise decisions in acquisitions, joint ventures and divestments. The newer business being adopted into existing corporations to some extent will not struggle. They will get a wealth of resources to draw from the parent company. A brand name and market presence have already been created to a certain level. There are policie s, procedures and a vision in place. However there may be certain factors to consider. The strategic leader has to ensure that the implemented policies fit well in the new venture’s environment otherwise there will be frustration. The parent company helps the ventures control costs. However reporting to the parent company works like a double-edged sword whereby there are benefits and costs (Miller, 1991). Where there is bureaucracy in decision making, subsidiaries may miss out on opportunities due to decision delay concerning product launches. There has to be a balance in the controls the parent company exerts over other business units. Globalization: There are numerous advantages of globalization. The consumer is the real winner in the globalised market (Nash, 2008). The idea of monopolies is defeated as businesses are forced to compete globally. The quality of products a company offers has to be very high. It increases specialization in the companies. Consumers do not have to buy overpriced goods from local companies. They can now buy the goods at a cheaper price from international companies that incur less manufacturing costs. The company benefits as they gain access to wider markets. The benefit of globalization for employees is career advancement as the company grows in staff numbers (Exforsys Inc Editors, 2000). On the other hand globalization may serve to slow down the processes in a company. It may take a long time to come up with a decision where there is bureaucracy. The management and leadership skills in a certain place may not be effective in another location. The company has to adjust culturally to the new target locations. The employees may end up stagnating in the large human resource pool. These are just a few of the changes that the leader faces. These global challenges need to be handled aggressively and strategically. Global Strategy and the Current challenges:  Ã‚  In today’s global business environment, strategic leadershi p is required. The strategic leader expresses a vision for the global organization and motivates the people towards achieving that vision (Juneju, 1998). Such a leader is loyal to the vision. Furthermore he keeps the people updated on the challenges and changes of the vision and the ways of achieving that vision. They are skilled in giving instructions. They are not dictatorial at all. They are listeners able to gain the confidence and trust of the staff (Aiman, 2007). A strategic leader must have a global perspective and be very innovative. Global strategy is planned at an international level since a company wants to take advantage of the global markets. Decisions have to be made on which foreign markets to invest in and what products to sell. Are there markets for the company products in the new target markets? How will the company products be promoted in the particular countries? There are many factors to be considered when getting involved in foreign markets such as the legal en vironment, the social and cultural environment and the competitive environment. The new markets are necessary as a company finds itself in its locale with a saturated market. Expanding globally to new markets increases the sales of the company. For example in the 1990’s 40% of the sales of coca cola’s sales came from foreign markets. This accounted for 60% of the company’s profits (Mote, 2010). Another advantage of engaging in global strategy is risk diversification. A company is no longer so vulnerable to the locale low economic cyclic.  Ã‚  A strategic leader needs to have forecasting and analytical skills to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the company globally. Global strategy does not only refer to the handling of foreign markets of the company but also the handling of the inflow of global competition within the local country. One of the challenges is on how to create a strong market presence in the foreign country. Currentl y strategic leaders have been facing several challenges. The first one is change. Recently there was a global financial crisis in the Western countries that also trickled down to subsidiary countries. The housing crisis, high energy prices and over-extension of consumer debt led to many companies almost going bankrupt. This led to high loss of jobs (Dean, 2008). The global companies had to cut costs resulting to retrenchment and offers of early retirement. Companies such as audit firms had to let go of some of their employees in their subsidiary companies in Africa. The leader has to be innovative and resilient. This is a crisis that leaders learnt from and they realized the importance of diversifying their sources of income. Apart from economic changes there are political, environmental and legal changes that may take place in a country. The global crisis necessitated the change in the transaction laws. Risk of the transaction now is considered and weighed highly. The strategic lea der should always be aware of the expert arguments and discussions in the economic sectors. The issue of global warming is a hot issue now. Companies that use eco-friendly forms of energy are viewed more positively. Strategic leaders need to view this form of energy as not only cost-saving but opportunities to offer new products and services (Deloitte Editors, 2010) Firms that adapt rapidly to changes will be highly profitable. Global operations also bring in the second challenge of complexity of the organization’s operations. As the company expands the management is faced with the challenges of controlling activities that are beyond the country’s borders. The company now involves more staff. For companies engaged in the US, there is a growing trend of an aging workforce. These are the children born after the Second World War Two who are also referred to as ‘baby boomers’ (Larson, 2009). Families are more conscious and deliberate on the number of children they should have. They have mostly decided it is less. In Germany the death rate is higher than the birth rate. This has been the case for the last twenty years. Companies in that country outsource jobs to India. India has a high population and is a leading economy in outsourcing services. In Russia the population for the last ten years has been decreasing. The strategic company should have policies that are equitable and fair towards an aging workforce. It should also be flexible and engage in outsourcing human manpower. The companies in the global environment will be dealing with three kinds of age groups. In the West the aging workforce may dominate but in India and Africa there are a lot of young people. The management also needs to be able to handle older women well. With the financial crisis, retirement plans have changed and they will retire later. Thirdly there is strong competition in global markets. First of all there are the protected companies in the developing countries that enjoy tax incentives. They incur lower costs of production enabling them to sell their products cheaper. Lately there have been trade agreements being formed among countries in order to deal with the effects of globalization. In Africa there will be the formation of the East Africa Community for countries in the East Africa Region. Through trade agreements there is minimization of costs among member countries. It also encourages peace and cooperation (Divya, 2009) In Europe the use of the Euro single currency has helped the participating countries gain prominence in global markets. With the recent global financial crisis there will be higher cooperation between these member countries. Maintaining the monetary union will benefit all the member countries. The first company in a foreign market industry no longer enjoys being the lead for long since the market gets saturated and the competition keeps increases. Globally any company has to deal with the successful emerging economie s of India and China. India provides a lot of goods while India is at the forefront providing services. Companies have had to move offshore in search of new markets. A company should provide superior and high quality products.  Ã‚  A company may choose to be the low cost provider in a price sensitive market. Another strategy may be product differentiation. The final and very important challenge for a company is ethics and culture. An important aspect of global strategy is the moral and ethical practices of the country in the target countries. Issues of global social responsibility will definitely arise. The company may need to get involved in community initiatives in order to improve their image in the eyes of the locals. The company should ensure they practice honest advertising. The consumer should be educated on the product uses, dangers and side effects if any. This is a big challenge as shareholders desire to maximize profit. Another challenge is the change in the faces of th e family unit in the workplace. With the tough economic times both parents are forced to work. Companies have to include child care as one of their work incentives in order to increase the workers job mobility. The parents need workplaces that will take care of their babies as they work. Thirdly a company has to carry out a thorough research of the target market. Several companies due to inadequate research have launched products with ineffective names or marketing ads in their target countries. An example is when in the 1970’s General Motors attempted to market its Nova automobile in the country of Mexico. This proved difficult since the Mexican translation of the word Nova means â€Å"No go†. Another disaster occurred when  Ã‚  Brannif, an airline company, was selling its leather covered seats in the same country. The company had a slogan of â€Å"Sentando en cuero†. Unfortunately the words translate into â€Å"sit naked.† There was also the fiasco of the company Pepsodent marketing its toothpaste that whitens teeth yet in South East Asia, yellow and black teeth are acceptable. In fact they are a sign of status. Conclusion: In light of all the mentioned factors, strategic leadership is integral in maintaining a successful and sustainable global strategy. To be inflexible and static would lead to the death of any company competing in the global markets Reference List Aiman. (2007). Strategic leadership approach.  Associated Content. Web. Ansoff H. (1985). Implementing Strategic Management. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print. Campbell, A., Michael G., Marcus A. (1995). Corporate strategy: The quest for parenting advantage  Harvard business review  The magazine, March-April. 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(2006) Leadership verses management.  Management Issues. Web. Whittington, R. (2002)  What is Strategy – and Does it Matter?  UK: Thompson Learning. Print. This essay on The importance of strategic leadership in the global business environment was written and submitted by user Eileen Clay to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.